Original Research

Pastoral challenges and responses to fear of avenging spirits (ngozi ) in Africa: a biblical evaluation and response – a case of the Shona people

V. Magezi, T. Myambo
In die Skriflig/In Luce Verbi | Vol 45, No 1 | a10 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/ids.v45i1.10 | © 1970 V. Magezi, T. Myambo | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 22 June 2011 | Published:

About the author(s)

V. Magezi, Practical Theology, Potchefstroom Campus North-West University, POTCHEFSTROOM
T. Myambo, Practical Theology, Potchefstroom Campus North-West University, POTCHEFSTROOM

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Avenging spirits, commonly known as “ngozi”, are one of the most feared and mysterious spiritual manifestations among African people – particularly the Shona people of Zimbabwe. To address the fears of Christians in such contexts, a contextually relevant pastoral ministry should first of all be designed. Such a ministerial design should proceed from a thorough understanding of the contextual reality of the spiritual world (of “ngozi”). Secondly, it should formulate a biblical response to the phenomenon in order to be informed by a sound biblical premise. Thirdly, its design should utilise the natural potential of community church people. Cognisant of these realities and challenges in African churches, this article grapples with the subject of the fear of avenging spirits in congregations, using the case study of the Shona people of Zimbabwe, and how a pastoral ministry could be designed to address the situation. In doing so, the article discusses the phenomenon of avenging spirits, it provides a systematic biblical response and evaluation of “ngozi” and it proposes a contextually relevant and biblicallyinformed pastoral ministry to people under consideration.


Avenging Spirits; Ngozi; Biblical Evaluation


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Crossref Citations

1. Kuripa Ngozi as a conflict resolution model in Shona communities of Zimbabwe: a conceptual analysis
Norman Chivasa
Critical African Studies  vol: 11  issue: 2  first page: 159  year: 2019  
doi: 10.1080/21681392.2019.1657028