Original Research

Complementary apologetics: An attempt for the integration of apologetic schools

Willem van Vlastuin
In die Skriflig/In Luce Verbi | Vol 50, No 1 | a1890 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/ids.v50i1.1890 | © 2016 Willem van Vlastuin | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 10 October 2014 | Published: 18 March 2016

About the author(s)

Willem van Vlastuin, Department of Theology and Spirituality of Reformed Protestantism, VU-University, South Africa; Director Jonathan Edwards Centre Benelux, the Netherlands; Research Fellow at the University of the Free State, South Africa


Within Christian apologetics several schools of thought exist. This article is firstly an attempt to come to a classification of these different schools. Next, the agreements and disagreements between these schools are investigated. It appears that despite the differences there are several common convictions between the several apologetic approaches, namely ‘knowing as basis for showing’, and ‘faith seeks understanding’. These common convictions appear to be fundamental if compared with the differences. The third part of this article explores the arguments for an integration of the different approaches. However, the concept of a strict integration will be problematic, and this leads in the final part to a proposal. The proposal is for a complementary model of concentric circles, starting with the convictions of the heart in the centre in fideism and presuppositionalism, continuing with apologetics which refer to the human mind in classical apologetics and culminating in apologetics that refer to senses in evidentialism.


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Crossref Citations

1. Apologetika Sebagai Dasar Pendidikan Iman Anak: Sebuah Pendekatan Praktis dalam Keluarga Kristen
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doi: 10.30648/dun.v8i1.1052